Pfizer, Moderna and AstraZeneca vaccines could be rolled out early next year. We asked experts to explain the main differences and which countries can reach the first low-income countries
Pharmaceutical companies are rushing to produce a vaccine against COVID-19 starting early in 2021, but there are concerns that poorer countries are lagging behind.
Nations have already bought more than 6 billion doses of vaccines that have yet to be approved, but according to 20 researchers, no low-income country has entered into a direct agreement.
We are researching the preliminary vaccines and asking experts or efforts to make it work for the 22% of the world’s population – or 1.3 billion people – who live in developing countries.
What is the main obstacle that developing countries can achieve these vaccines?
Anna Marriott, Health Policy Manager, Oxfam – “The biggest challenge we are seeing is the unprecedented supply scale required, so it is one of the biggest constraints to produce enough of the vaccine.
“It is very clear that unless the companies relinquish their control (over intellectual property) … and enable more producers to produce the vaccine, we will certainly not get the stock as fast as we need it. . “
Andrea D. Taylor, Assistant Director of Programs, Duke Global Health Institute – “We need to focus on timing and equity of distribution.
‘For the best results worldwide, our poor and rich countries need about the same amount of time to get doses.
“However, it looks like high-income countries are likely to be well covered by the first half of 2021, but low-income countries are still waiting. Vaccine vaccinations are a growing problem. Incorrect information about the pandemic and the “Vaccinations are brewing mistrust. This is a problem in all countries … and can prevent people from taking the vaccine.”
Roz Scourse, Policy Advisor, Medicine Without Borders (MSF) “Vaccine nationalism is a major challenge for access to low- and middle-income countries.
“Even if people in high-income countries gain access, if COVID continues to spread to other populations around the world, we are not going to see the end of the pandemic.”
Where do you rank the three vaccines on these issues? Which one can reach the poorest quickly?
Taylor, Duke Global Health Institute “In terms of effective distribution in poorer countries, the Oxford / AstraZeneca vaccine appears to be the winner so far. It is stable at standard refrigerator temperatures.”
Scourse, MSF “For Pfitzer and Moderna, there are a few different prices, but very high prices per dose, which will certainly limit their access to low- and middle-income countries.”
Marriott, Oxfam “I will first rank AstraZeneca and Oxford in terms of the actual price at which they sell this vaccine.
‘AstraZeneca and Oxford have clearly done more to expand production by licensing their vaccine to more manufacturers in the south worldwide.
‘In terms of logistics, Pfizer and BioNTech need an ultra-cold chain, which makes it much more cumbersome. But this is not impossible.
How can these vaccines be made more accessible?
Marriott, Oxfam – “What we want to see AstraZeneca and Oxford do now is to commit to an open license so that more vaccine manufacturers can come on board. We think the power is in their hands to end this epidemic by the end of 2021.”
Scourse, MSF– “Both price and supply challenges can be overcome if we look at more systemic issues in intellectual property.
“We need to open up intellectual property, including patents, so that any manufacturer around the world can manufacture the successful products without fear of obstacles.”